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In this scenario, the traffickers withheld the girl’s passports and threatened to circulate photographs of them engaging in sex acts in order to obtain their compliance. Coercion , or using threats of physical harm or physical restraint against a person, is another context of control associated with human trafficking (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). In many cases, traffickers coerce victims by threatening to harm their families if they do not comply with their demands (Whitaker & Hinterlong, 2008; Williamson & Prior, 2009).For many victims of forced labor, fraud is a strategy used by traffickers to exploit dreams or hope for a better life (U. Coercion can take the form of direct physical violence or be psychological in nature (Logan et al., 2009; U. Coercive tactics can directly exploit cultural beliefs, such as the case described by Whitaker and Hinterlong (2008) in which a victim believed she had to obey a trafficker because he kept a lock of her hair.Although fraud is typical in labor trafficking scenarios (e.g., women are offered appealing job opportunities overseas as a nanny or model and then forced into prostitution upon arrival), this tactic also is employed within sex trafficking scenarios (Belser, 2005; Whitaker & Hinterlong, 2008). Once recruited, victims enter into debt bondage and are promised freedom upon repayment to traffickers for their services (Williamson et al., 2010).Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade (Albanese, 2007; U. Unfortunately, the result of debt bondage is a never-ending cycle from which victims cannot escape (Chesnay, 2013).Counselors should increase their awareness of the vulnerabilities that place persons at risk of becoming trafficked.Additionally, obtaining a deeper understanding of the indicators and processes through which persons become trafficked is necessary in order to provide appropriate services.Although female pronouns are used in this article, this detail is not intended to minimize the fact that many cisgender men, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons, become victims of forced sexual exploitation (Martinez & Kelle, 2013; Oram, Stöckl, Busza, Howard, & Zimmerman, 2012).Definition, Terms and Processes of Sex Trafficking Despite the growing awareness of modern day slavery, the act of human trafficking is not a new phenomenon.
Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions.Counselors must become educated in recognizing the signs of trafficked persons, vulnerabilities to becoming trafficked, and the processes by which persons are forced into sexual exploitation in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the client’s worldview and provide appropriate support.Existing literature addressing the mental health needs of sex trafficked survivors remains extremely limited (Hossain, Zimmerman, Abas, Light, & Watts, 2010; Tsutsumi, Izutsu, Poudyal, Kato, & Marui, 2008).Human trafficking was not limited to European countries.Beginning in 1619, both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies (D. Human trafficking and modern day slavery are acts of social injustice that have historically exploited men, women and children.